When a person develops a drug seeking behavior without bothering about the circumstances then this person is most likely addicted. Some drugs are habit forming and develop tolerance in the human body so that the addicted person needs more and more of it to get the desired effect. Almost all addicted people experience withdrawal symptoms when they stop using the drug. There are a large number of addictive substances like tobacco, cocaine, alcohol etc. which are physically and psychologically addictive, while others like chewing gum or nail biting are purely psychological.
It is difficult to understand addiction because of its complex nature in which the physical and psychological factors feed off each other.
How can you recognize addiction?
This is a disorder that affects a large range of people and there is no difference regarding the income, occupation, race, personal willpower or culture. Almost anyone can develop an addiction. If you are experiencing any of the following then you possibly have developed an addiction.
- Having trouble in controlling the quantity of the substance to be taken
- Having trouble in controlling the number of times you take the substance
- Having trouble in controlling the length of time for which the substance is taken over and above the period prescribed
Usually the initial decision to use the substance is voluntary, but it slowly develops into an uncontrollable need to use the substance. Repeated abuse of the drugs changes the chemistry of the brain so that the addicts keep on using drugs, even if they understand that such abuse may harm them.
Diagnosis of an addiction
Diagnosing an addiction is similar to diagnosing any other ailment. The medical expert will examine the patient for symptoms which meet specific criteria which is scientific in nature and this defines the ailment in question just like it defines an addiction. The American Psychiatric Association has published The diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders which is commonly used for diagnosing addictions.
The criteria provided in the DSM are most often accepted and used by professionals to help in determining the occurrence and seriousness of a substance abuse disorder. These include:
- Lack of control – The person uses the substance in larger amounts and for longer periods than they intended initially
- The desire to control the usage – Most addicts want to cut back on the use, but are not able to do so
- Amount of time spent – The patient spends a lot of time in trying to acquire the substance
- Cravings – There is intense desire to use the drug or alcohol
- No responsibility – the patient gives more priority to the substance usage than to important activities like work, school or social obligations
- Relationship problems – the relationships with family and friends often become strained due to drug abuse
- Losing interest – The patient stops engaging in other positive activities or entertainment and simply wants to be under the effect of the drug
- Dangerous use – The patient continues to use the drug in spite of obvious danger
- Worsening situation – The patient continues to use the drug in spite of ill effects on physical or psychological health
- Tolerance – the person needs larger amounts of the drug for the desired effect